Urologists diagnose and treat diseases of the urinary tract in both men and women. They also diagnose and treat anything involving the reproductive tract in men.

In some cases, they may perform surgery. For example, they may remove cancer or open up a blockage in the urinary tract. Urologists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private clinics, and urology centers.

The urinary tract is the system that creates, stores, and removes urine from the body. Urologists can treat any part of this system. This includes the:

• kidneys, which are the organs that filter waste out of the blood to produce urine
• ureters, which are the tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder
• bladder, which is the hollow sac that stores urine
• urethra, which is the tube through which urine travels from the bladder out of the body
• adrenal glands, which are the glands located on top of each kidney that release hormones

Urologists also treat all parts of the male reproductive system. This system is made up of the:

• penis, which is the organ that releases urine and carries sperm out of the body
• prostate, which is the gland underneath the bladder that adds fluid to sperm to produce semen
• testicles, which are the two oval organs inside the scrotum that make the hormone testosterone and produce

Urology is the field of medicine that focuses on diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive tract.

Some urologists treat general diseases of the urinary tract. Others specialize in a particular type of urology, such as:

• female urology, which focuses on conditions of a woman’s reproductive and urinary tract
• male infertility, which focuses on problems that prevent a man from conceiving a baby with his partner
• neurourology, which focuses on urinary problems due to conditions of the nervous system
• pediatric urology, which focuses on urinary problems in children
• urologic oncology, which focuses on cancers of the urinary system, including the bladder, kidneys, prostate,
and testicles

Urologists treat a wide variety of conditions that affect the urinary system and male reproductive system.
In men, urologists treat:

• cancers of the bladder, kidneys, penis, testicles, and adrenal and prostate glands
• prostate gland enlargement
• erectile dysfunction, or trouble getting or keeping an erection
• infertility
• interstitial cystitis, also called painful bladder syndrome
• kidney diseases
• kidney stones
• prostatitis, which is inflammation of the prostate gland
• urinary tract infections (UTIs)
• varicoceles, or enlarged veins in the scrotum

In women, urologists treat:

• bladder prolapse, or the dropping of the bladder into the vagina
• cancers of the bladder, kidneys, and adrenal glands
• interstitial cystitis
• kidney stones
• overactive bladder
• UTIs
• urinary incontinence

In children, urologists treat:

• bed-wetting
• blockages and other problems with the urinary tract structure
• undescended testicles.