Liver Transplant and Biliary Sciences

Liver Transplant Surgery in India

Alhuda Medical Tourism provides the best medical packages for Liver transplant surgery in India and liver function in India. Liver transplant is an option for those with irreversible liver failure. Most transplants are done for chronic liver diseases leading to cirrhosis, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholism, autoimmune hepatitis, and many others. Less commonly, liver transplantation is done for fulminant hepatic failure, in which liver failure occurs over days to weeks. Liver allografts for transplant usually come from non-living donors who have died from fatal brain injury. Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person’s liver is removed and used to replace the entire liver of the recipient. This was first performed in 1989 for pediatric liver transplantation. Only 20% of an adult’s liver (Couinaud segments 2 and 3) is needed to serve as a liver allograft for an infant or small child. More recently, adult-to-adult liver transplantation has been done using the donor’s right hepatic lobe which amounts to 60% of the liver. Due to the ability of the liver to regenerate, both the donor and recipient end up with normal liver function if all goes well. This procedure is more controversial as it entails performing a much larger operation on the donor, and indeed there have been at least two donor deaths out of the first several hundred cases. The liver is supplied by two major blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein. The hepatic artery normally comes off the celiac trunk. The portal vein brings venous blood from the digestive tract, so that the liver can process the nutrients and toxic byproducts of food digestion. The hepatic veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile capillaries which merge to form bile ducts. These eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which in turn merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct (from the gallbladder) joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile can either drain directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct or be temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum together at the Ampulla of Vater. The branchings of the bile ducts resemble those of a tree, and indeed the term “biliary tree” is commonly used in this setting.